All Reconstruction is Local by Elizabeth Royall, Washington, District of Columbia, U.S.A - Length: 15-25 - Featured for December First The Residence of Evil by Elmira Cheremisova, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation - Length: 15-25 - Featured for December First NATO: Free-Riding and Legitimacy-Laundering by Nick McIntosh, Ohio, U.S.A. - Length: 8-15 - Featured for December Second 2012 Foreign Policy Action Plan by Matthew Bishop (Ohio, U.S.A.) and Baron Laudermilk (Beijing, China) - Length: 25-40 - Featured for December Second The Next Arena: Options for U.S. Policy Toward North African Terror by Jacob Derr, Ohio, U.S.A. - Length: 15-25 - Featured for December Third Smart Power by Nadja Panchenko, Leipzig, Germany - Length: 8-15 - Featured for December Third
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ALL RECONSTRUCTION IS LOCAL by Elizabeth Royall (Washington, District of Columbia, U.S.A.) Edited by Associate Editor Ellie Hamrick
ABSTRACT: This paper details how current reconstruction strategy is not suited for the problems and culture of postconflict states, the common elements present in postconflict countries, and how local governance and programming is better suited to address postwar problems. The case study of autonomous Somaliland is examined as an example of building society and governance from the ground up without a heavy international footprint. Finally, a new model of reconstruction strategy is presented that will channel indigenous leadership and skills to build governance in local areas while slowly increasing self-sustaining capacity at all levels of government.
BIO: This work was inspired by Elizabeth's work on the formations of democracy and conflict resolution with Dr. Eric Patterson, the associate director of the Berkley Center. She is a MA candidate in international security at Georgetown University and a 2009 magna cum laude graduate from American University with degrees in international studies and journalism. Her undergraduate thesis focused on reconstruction in Afghanistan and was selected to be presented at two national undergraduate research conferences. She previously worked at the Embassy of Afghanistan in Washington, D.C.
THE RESIDENCE OF EVIL by Elmira Cheremisova (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation) Edited by Associate Editor Nicholas Prephan and Director Matthew Bishop
ABSTRACT: The ongoing civil conflict in Afghanistan has been much discussed by contemporary scholars and researchers. Most of them suggest various recommendations of what could be done to stop the war. However it still remains unclear why, after the operation lasting for more than 10 years, Afghanistan is still seen as “The Residence of Evil”. Attempting to fill the gap in previous studies, this research looks deeply into the technical side of the current UN-NATO operation in Afghanistan. Civil-military dialogue of the UN and NATO is examined in detail to reveal shortcomings in the operation’s strategic planning. All statistical analysis show that both the UN and NATO fail to achieve their own goals. There is hardly any improvement in the social, economic and political situation in the country. At the same time progress is not possible without reliable armed forces able to prevent and to contain insurgency. The National Afghan Army is the crucial body that is to maintain law and order throughout Afghanistan if the international coalition withdraws. Nevertheless statistical analysis shows that currently it fully depends on International Security Assistance Forces. This was concluded as the key factor for ISAF’s permanent presence in Afghanistan. The specific feature of this research is that it is based not only on academic but also on professional military literature. Officers’ handbooks and field manuals for planning and conducting military operations have been used to figure out theoretical concepts and analyze the nature of coordination between the UN and NATO during the operation.
The author is grateful to Dr. Darya Pushkina (Professor of International Relations, Associate Dean for International Students, Bard College and St.Petersburg State University) for invaluable help and advice while doing this research.
BIO: Elmira Cheremisova is a M.A. student at Saint Petersburg State University (Russian Federation) in a joint program with Bard College (U.S.A.). She got her B.A. degree majoring in International Relations and Linguistics. Her research interests while studying International Relations have been primarily concentrated on the study of Conflict Resolution and Middle Eastern Studies. Currently she is working on a dissertation entitled “Democracy in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan” which analyzes the peculiarities of democratization in Afghanistan.
NATO: FREE-RIDING AND LEGITIMACY-LAUNDERING by Nick McIntosh (Ohio, U.S.A.) Edited by Director Matthew Bishop
ABSTRACT: NATO, despite the end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, has soldiered on into the 2010’s. Though many attempts have been made to understand its continuation, few have incorporated the lessons learned from America’s behavior prior to the Iraq War to properly understand the U.S. and its interest in keeping such an organization alive. Drawing from Ian Hurd’s "After Anarchy", I propose a mutually beneficial model for both the hegemon and Europe that functions off of a legitimacy filtration relationship. By using NATO as a multilateral international community, the U.S. is able to administer its foreign policy through the community to give the illusion that actions taken by NATO are beneficial to all member nations and the global community. In return, European members are able to free-ride on the hegemon’s military expenditures without having to build a defense on their own dime. I further conclude that such a model, though accurate as it stands now, is not stable. If NATO is to remain a viable institution, America must cede at least some of its predominance in decisionmaking to maintain the organization’s legitimacy output. Further, Europe must build its own defenses rather than remaining a protectorate of the hegemon.
BIO: Nick McIntosh is a political science and philosophy double-major undergraduate at Ohio University with an academic focus in Law, Justice, and Political Thought.
2012 Foreign Policy Action Plan by Director Matthew Bishop (Ohio, U.S.A.) and Far East Asia Regional Director Baron Laudermilk (Beijing, China) Edited by Director Matthew Bishop
ABSTRACT: The 2012 Foreign Policy Action Plan covers grand strategy and particular policy suggestions for Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, and also engages ideas for reforming global governing, judicial, and economic institutions.
BIO: Matthew Bishop is the Founder and Director of World Report: The Student Journal for International Affairs, Managing Editor for this release and the chief author of this document. His concentration is in the rhetoric of social and political change. Baron Laudermilk is the Far East Regional Director and Chief Secretary of the journal and a regular staff researcher and writer. His focus is in Chinese government and economy.
The Next Arena: Options for U.S. Policy Toward North African Terror by Jacob Derr (Ohio, U.S.A.) Edited by Director Matthew Bishop
ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the type of actions, both diplomatic and military, that the United States can take in dealing with the African groups Boko Haram, Al Shabaab, and Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. Specifically, it analyzes the type of conflict the U.S. may become involved in, the tactical organization of the three groups, and whether democracy should be extended to the insurgent elements. It does so with an eye to earlier developments in the Bush Administration’s War on Terror as compared with recent NATO actions supporting aspirants in the Arab Spring. The United States must make three major decisions among many in formulating policy towards this new and developing conflict: 1) will it fight a ground war or act in a multilateral or support capacity with local governments or international organizations 2) will it treat the three groups as one contiguous threat, or work to disaggregate them and solve conflicts individually, and 3) will it support current regimes, or work for the legitimate democratic aspirations of the insurgents in each country? The paper will examine multiple sides of each issue.
BIO: Jacob Derr is a senior studying Political Science Pre-Law and Broadcast Journalism at Ohio University. He studies conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa with a focus in counterinsurgency tactics.
Smart Power by Nadja Panchenko (Leipzig, Germany) Edited by Director Matthew Bishop
ABSTRACT: Recent scholars have coined terms such as "soft" power, "hard" power, "sticky" power, "sweet" power, and "smart" power. This essay analyzes these categorical descriptions of foreign policy power and suggests that "smart" power lays at the intersection of these categories. Smart power, the essay asserts, is the sort of power which the United States should most often seek to employ-- but it must do so within the framework of multilateral and multinational actions and with approval from the international community, a framework that the current president is very much adhering to.
BIO: Nadja is an undergraduate student from Russia who has studied in both Germany and the United States. She works with nuclear energy and environmental policy and with American foreign policy.